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Das Adjektiv lesbisch (Substantiv: Lesbe, heute selten verwendet Lesbierin), eigentlich „zu Im Jahre tauchte der Begriff Lesbian auch erstmals im englischen Billing's Medical Dictionary auf und verbreitete sich schnell. Vor der. LGBT ist eine aus dem englischen Sprachraum übernommene Abkürzung für Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (lesbisch, schwul, bisexuell. Lesbian Women in Switzerland. Three Stories. ; Zweites Buch: When You Come Back, I Might Be Dead. Schwarze Lesben in Johannesburg und das. Die Flying Lesbians waren die erste reine Frauenrockband in Deutschland und auf dem europäischen Festland. aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Notes. Since bi people exist, lesbian or gay might be not accurate, since the venue might allow lesbians and bi women, and harmful.

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Lesbianism: Lesbian, LGBT, Tribadism, Media portrayal of lesbianism, Separatist feminism, Butch and femme, Lesbian feminism von Source: Wikipedia bei. Auf dieser Kategorienseite werden alle Charaktere aus American Horror Story die LGBTQ (Lesbian. Die Flying Lesbians waren die erste reine Frauenrockband in Deutschland und auf dem europäischen Festland. aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Als Dragking wird eine Frau bezeichnet, die innerhalb einer Bühnenrolle in typisch männlicher Kleidung und Pawn porn stereotype männliche Verhaltensweisen darstellt oder persifliert. Zu Transgendern besteht keine direkte Verbindung, da es sich Brutal bukkake um Pattaya gangbang sexuelle Orientierung handelt. Navigation menu Personal tools English Create account Log in. Status: de facto. Währung umrechnen. Commons Wikinews. As a result, little in history has been documented to give an accurate description of how female homosexuality has been expressed. Jahrhundert n. Passionate love making Aufstieg des Eva green nude pics beendete dies In: New Statesman

Consequently, what lesbians may lack in frequency, they may make up for with longer durations. With regard to the ease or difficulty of achieving orgasm, Hite's research while subject to methodological limitations showed that most women need clitoral exterior stimulation for orgasm, which can be "easy and strong, given the right stimulation" and that the need for clitoral stimulation in addition to knowing one's own body is the reason that most women reach orgasm more easily by masturbation.

Preferences for specific sexual practices among female same-sex relationships have also been studied. Masters and Johnson concluded that vaginal penetration with dildos is rare and lesbians tend to do more overall genital stimulation than direct clitoral stimulation, which is also often the case for heterosexual relationships.

Some lesbian or bisexual women dislike oral sex because they do not like the experience or due to psychological or social factors, such as finding it unclean.

Some lesbians practice anal sex. Lesbians in their 30s were twice as likely as other age groups to engage in anal stimulation with a finger or dildo.

Like older studies, the data also showed that vaginal penetration with dildos, or with other sex toys, among women who have sex with women is rare.

When lesbian sexual activity is of a non-penetrative nature, the risk of exchange of bodily fluids is generally lower and therefore the incidence of transmission of sexually transmitted infections is also relatively low, [41] [42] especially when contrasted by penetrative sexual activities between male-female or male-male couples.

The CDC reported there is little data available regarding the risk of spreading sexually transmitted infections between women. The American Family Physician suggests that lesbian and bisexual women "cover sex toys that penetrate more than one person's vagina or anus with a new condom for each person" and to "consider using different toys for each person", to use a protection barrier for example, a latex sheet, dental dam , cut-open condom or plastic wrap during oral sex and to "use latex or vinyl gloves and lubricant for any manual sex that might cause bleeding unprotected contact with a sexual partner's menstrual blood and with any visible genital lesions".

Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Lesbian sex. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 31 August Sexual practices between women.

Human sexuality portal. Gay sexual practices Homosexuality Bisexuality. Archived from the original on June 1, Retrieved November 19, Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved February 3, The Journal of Sexual Medicine.

Medscape Today from WebMD. Retrieved Progress in Neurobiology. Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society. Cengage Learning. Retrieved May 12, Schacter; Daniel T.

Gilbert; Daniel M. Wegner University of California, Santa Barbara. Archived from the original on 25 July Weiner; W.

Edward Craighead The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, Volume 2. Carroll Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Retrieved November 4, J Gay Lesbian Med Assoc.

Archived from the original on Retrieved August 18, Clinical Psychology Review. June Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America.

Most women report the inability to achieve orgasm with vaginal intercourse and require direct clitoral stimulation BBC News. Die erste eindeutige Verbindung zwischen weiblicher Homosexualität und der Insel Lesbos, ist aus dem 2.

Jahrhundert n. Christus erhalten. Jahrhunderts auf. Getreu anderen historischen Beispielen wie Sadismus oder Donjuanismus verwandtet Richard von Krafft-Ebing einen Begriff aus der fiktionalen Literatur, um in der Realität auftretende Fallbeispiele zu beschreiben.

Anfangs des Wie viele Bezeichnungen aus dem Sexualbereich wurde auch das Adjektiv lesbisch bisweilen pejorativ , also abwertend, gebraucht.

Lesben waren und sind dabei insbesondere häufig in der allgemeinen Frauenbewegung aktiv und verstanden den Kampf für die Rechte von Lesben lange nur als Teil des allgemeinen Kampfes für die Rechte von Frauen.

Mit den kontroversen Auseinandersetzungen der feministischen Bewegung , den sogenannten Feminist Sex Wars , wurde auch die sexuelle Orientierung zu einem Diskussionspunkt, wobei der sex-positive Feminismus sich für die Akzeptanz der Homo- und Bisexualität aussprach, während es im Second-Wave-Feminismus einen deutlichen Wunsch nach Abgrenzung von der lesbischen Subkultur gab.

Ein Grund dieser Ablehnung war unter anderem, dass die fehlende öffentliche Akzeptanz von Lesben die Ziele des Feminismus gefährden könnte. Als erster lesbischer Film überhaupt gilt der Film Mädchen in Uniform von Seit den er Jahren werden lesbische Frauen verstärkt in Filmen und Serien dargestellt.

Der Aufstieg des Nationalsozialismus beendete dies Trotz einer gestiegenen medialen Präsenz homosexueller Frauen seit den er Jahren ist eine offen lesbische Lebensweise nicht etabliert, so dass es beispielsweise nur wenige offen lesbische Spitzenpolitikerinnen gibt, was auch daran liegt, dass es allgemein wenige weibliche Spitzenpolitikerinnen gibt.

Die lesbische Identität bezieht sich ganz wesentlich auf frauen- und lesbenzentrierte Lebensweisen und Interessen.

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Februar Pages: Dies begann sich erst in den letzten Jahren wieder zu ändern. This might never be used, but is included for completeness sake. In: Medium , 8. Lesbians wiki

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Mehr noch als Butches und Femmes werden Dragkings und Transmänner , insbesondere solche, die eine Verbindung zur lesbischen Subkultur haben oder hatten, von der Lesben- und Frauenbewegung kritisiert. Bis nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg wurde der Begriff drittes Geschlecht als Sammelbegriff für Menschen, die von heteronormativen Regeln abweichen, verwendet. Delivered from our UK warehouse in 4 to 14 business days. Besonders in den ern bis Anfang der er verwendeten einige statt des medizinisch klingenden, durch die Überbetonung des Sex leicht zu Missverständnissen führenden und stark negativ belasteten Wortes homosexuell den Begriff homophil als Selbstbeschreibung, der die Liebe hervorheben sollte. Aktuelle Themen im lesbischen Leben sind analog der gesamtgesellschaftlichen Diskussion, beispielsweise Fragen zum Leben im Alter und Regenbogenfamilien als eine gleichberechtigte Familienform. Neu Paperback Anzahl: Ebenda, jeweils auf S. Auf dieser Kategorienseite werden alle Charaktere aus American Horror Story die LGBTQ (Lesbian. Lesbians and Gays Support the Miners (kurz: LGSM) ist eine LGBT*Gruppe, die im Zuge des. VIDEOS MATCHS · BLOG · Gay monopoly wiki Partner für lesben asian lesbian sex viel tieferes verständnis, die sich küssen, da kannst. Ich von georgine war. Wikipedia: Pride Flag konstigavisboken.se:Demisexual_konstigavisboken.se Lesbian ~ lesbisch: bezieht sich auf Frauen, die sich sexuell, romantisch. Lesbianism: Lesbian, LGBT, Tribadism, Media portrayal of lesbianism, Separatist feminism, Butch and femme, Lesbian feminism von Source: Wikipedia bei.

Seit ist die Insel in zwei Gemeinden untergliedert. In Mytilini , dem Handels- und Wirtschaftszentrum der Insel, leben Hinzu kommen noch ca.

Das Wort lesbisch , im Sinne von weiblich homosexuell, wird vom Namen der Insel abgeleitet, da die von dort stammende antike Dichterin Sappho in ihren Gedichten von der Liebe zu Frauen sang.

Im Jahrhundert war die gesamte Insel im restlichen Europa allgemein als Mytilene fr. In deutschsprachigen Publikationen und Zeitungen wurde bis weit nach der Mitte des Jahrhunderts hauptsächlich der Name Metelin verwendet, abgeleitet vom ital.

Jahrhundert vor allem dann, wenn von der antiken Geschichte der Insel die Rede war. Lesbos liegt in der nördlichen Ägäis und wird innerhalb der Nordostägäischen Inseln zu den Ostägäischen Inseln gezählt.

Lesbos ist vulkanischen Ursprungs und erhebt sich an mehreren Stellen bis nahezu tausend Meter über dem Meer.

Bergmassive dominieren die Insel. Das Berg- und Hügelland wird immer wieder von Ebenen unterbrochen, die knapp ein Drittel der Insel ausmachen.

Von der Südküste her reichen zwei Meeresbuchten mit einer Wassertiefe je um rund 20 Meter weit in die Insel hinein. Die übrige Küstenlinie ist durch zahlreiche kleinere Buchten gegliedert.

An verschiedenen Stellen sind der Küste unbewohnte Inselchen vorgelagert. Lesbos liegt im Übergangsbereich des mediterranen Winterregenklimas zum kontinental geprägten Steppenklima Kleinasiens.

Im Zeitraum von bis hat sich im Vergleich zum Mittelwert von bis die Niederschlagsmenge nahezu halbiert. Dieser Trend wurde für alle Monate mit Ausnahme des Novembers festgestellt.

Der Rückgang der Regentage beträgt etwa zwei Tage pro Monat. Dieser Rückgang der Niederschläge in Verbindung mit der Erhöhung der Lufttemperatur wurde bereits für andere Regionen des Mittelmeerraums nachgewiesen oder vorhergesagt.

Die reduzierten Niederschläge in West-Lesbos sind hauptsächlich auf starke Winde in diesem Gebiet zurückzuführen. Die mittleren Geschwindigkeiten sind etwa doppelt so hoch wie in den östlichen und zentralen Inselgebieten.

Zum 1. Auf Lesbos wurde die archäologische Forschung lange vernachlässigt, daher ist die vorschriftliche Geschichte vergleichsweise schlecht erforscht.

Die Abschläge in Levalloistechnik werden ins Mittelpaläolithikum datiert, [8] nach jüngeren Forschungen dem Mittelpleistozän bzw. Damit handelt es sich um die älteste Fundstätte Griechenlands.

Die mittelpaläolithischen Funde wurden auf mindestens Siedlungsaktivitäten der späten Jungsteinzeit und damit frühbäuerlicher Kulturen, konnten an mehreren Orten im Inselinneren auf hoch gelegenen Hügeln und an der Küste nachgewiesen werden.

Eventuelle ältere Spuren könnten aber auch durch den ansteigenden Meeresspiegel und damit durch die Zerstörung küstennaher Siedlungen erklärlich sein.

Nahezu 40 Siedlungsstätten bezeugen die anhaltende Besiedlung seit der Frühbronzezeit , also im 3. Jahrtausend v. Der westliche Inselteil wurde frühesten ab der Mittleren Bronzezeit , also im frühen 2.

Dabei bildeten der Golf von Kalloni und die Ostküste die Hauptsiedlungszentren. Nur Thermi ist flächendeckend stratigraphisch erforscht, insgesamt wurden sieben Bauphasen nachgewiesen.

Begünstigt durch die Agrarwirtschaft und den Seehandel entwickelte sich Thermi während der ersten Hälfte des 3. Hälfte des 3.

Jahrtausends v. Die befestigte Siedlung von Kourtir bei Lisvori erreichte eine Fläche von etwa vier bis fünf Hektar, [16] eine archäologische Notgrabung in begrenzten Umfang wurde durchgeführt.

In der Spätbronzezeit gehörte Lesbos ab dem späten Jahrhundert v. Schon im 6. Um v. Dabei trägt vor allem das Werk des Alkaios zur vergleichsweise günstigen Quellenlage bei.

Für die späte Phase der Tyrannis, gegen Ende des 6. Jahrhunderts, sind wir auf Herodot angewiesen, und seine Schilderung des Koes.

Dennoch gilt seine Herrschaft, nach der Niederwerfung seiner Feinde, als vergleichsweise friedliche Zeit.

Sein Amtsverzicht brachte ihn in den Rang eines der Sieben Weisen. Jahrhunderts von den Persern als Tyrann installiert, auf welche Weise ist nicht bekannt.

Die zweite Form der Tyrannis war offenbar auf persischen Rückhalt angewiesen. Mytilini war neben Chios der letzte Bündner gewesen, der noch mit eigenen Schiffen die attische Flotte im Seebund unterstützt hatte.

Doch die von den Führern der Aufstandsbewegung mit Waffen ausgerüsteten einfachen mytilenischen Bürger wollten nicht gegen die Athener kämpfen. Stattdessen erzwangen sie die Kapitulation und Auslieferung der Stadt an den athenischen Strategen Paches.

Mytilenes Befestigungen wurden allerdings geschleift und seine Schiffe von den Athenern übernommen. Die Admirale Pharnabazos und Autophradates versuchten die wichtigsten Inseln unter ihrer Kontrolle zu behalten.

Dort handelte der athenische Söldnerführer Chares mit Mann freien Abzug aus. Die Christianisierung setzte auf der Insel vergleichsweise spät ein.

In der Spätantike bestanden etwa 60 Gemeinden, eine überraschend hohe Zahl, die sich aus den Häresien ableiten lässt, die die Insel vom 4. Jahrhundert prägten.

However, Seward continued to write about Sneyd long after her death, extolling Sneyd's beauty and their affection and friendship.

Writing to another woman by whom she had recently felt betrayed, Wollstonecraft declared, "The roses will bloom when there's peace in the breast, and the prospect of living with my Fanny gladdens my heart:—You know not how I love her.

Perhaps the most famous of these romantic friendships was between Eleanor Butler and Sarah Ponsonby, nicknamed the Ladies of Llangollen. Butler and Ponsonby eloped in , to the relief of Ponsonby's family concerned about their reputation had she run away with a man [73] to live together in Wales for 51 years and be thought of as eccentrics.

Some of it was written in code, detailing her sexual relationships with Marianna Belcombe and Maria Barlow. Romantic friendships were also popular in the U.

Enigmatic poet Emily Dickinson wrote over letters and poems to Susan Gilbert, who later became her sister-in-law, and engaged in another romantic correspondence with Kate Scott Anthon.

Anthon broke off their relationship the same month Dickinson entered self-imposed lifelong seclusion. Around the turn of the 20th century, the development of higher education provided opportunities for women.

In all-female surroundings, a culture of romantic pursuit was fostered in women's colleges. Older students mentored younger ones, called on them socially, took them to all-women dances, and sent them flowers, cards, and poems that declared their undying love for each other.

Nicholas , and a collection called Smith College Stories , without negative views. Women who had the option of a career instead of marriage labeled themselves New Women , and took their new opportunities very seriously.

For some women, the realization that they participated in behavior or relationships that could be categorized as lesbian caused them to deny or conceal it, such as professor Jeannette Augustus Marks at Mount Holyoke College , who lived with the college president, Mary Woolley , for 36 years.

Marks discouraged young women from "abnormal" friendships and insisted happiness could only be attained with a man. From the s to the s, American heiress Natalie Clifford Barney held a weekly salon in Paris to which major artistic celebrities were invited and where lesbian topics were the focus.

Combining Greek influences with contemporary French eroticism, she attempted to create an updated and idealized version of Lesbos in her salon.

Berlin had a vibrant homosexual culture in the s, and about 50 clubs existed that catered to lesbians. Die Freundin The Girlfriend magazine, published between and , targeted lesbians.

In , the lesbian bar and nightclub guide Berlins lesbische Frauen The Lesbians of Berlin by Ruth Margarite Röllig [90] further popularized the German capital as a center of lesbian activity.

Clubs varied between large establishments that became tourist attractions, to small neighborhood cafes where local women went to meet other women.

Although it was sometimes tolerated, homosexuality was illegal in Germany and law enforcement used permitted gatherings as an opportunity to register the names of homosexuals for future reference.

The novel's plot centers around Stephen Gordon, a woman who identifies herself as an invert after reading Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia Sexualis , and lives within the homosexual subculture of Paris.

The novel included a foreword by Havelock Ellis and was intended to be a call for tolerance for inverts by publicizing their disadvantages and accidents of being born inverted.

The publicity Hall received was due to unintended consequences; the novel was tried for obscenity in London, a spectacularly scandalous event described as " the crystallizing moment in the construction of a visible modern English lesbian subculture" by professor Laura Doan.

Newspaper stories frankly divulged that the book's content includes "sexual relations between Lesbian women", and photographs of Hall often accompanied details about lesbians in most major print outlets within a span of six months.

When British women participated in World War I, they became familiar with masculine clothing, and were considered patriotic for wearing uniforms and pants.

However, postwar masculinization of women's clothing became associated with lesbians. In the United States, the s was a decade of social experimentation, particularly with sex.

This was heavily influenced by the writings of Sigmund Freud , who theorized that sexual desire would be sated unconsciously, despite an individual's wish to ignore it.

Freud's theories were much more pervasive in the U. With the well-publicized notion that sexual acts were a part of lesbianism and their relationships, sexual experimentation was widespread.

Large cities that provided a nightlife were immensely popular, and women began to seek out sexual adventure. Bisexuality became chic, particularly in America's first gay neighborhoods.

No location saw more visitors for its possibilities of homosexual nightlife than Harlem , the predominantly African American section of New York City.

White "slummers" enjoyed jazz , nightclubs, and anything else they wished. Some women staged lavish wedding ceremonies, even filing licenses using masculine names with New York City.

Across town, Greenwich Village also saw a growing homosexual community; both Harlem and Greenwich Village provided furnished rooms for single men and women, which was a major factor in their development as centers for homosexual communities.

Bohemians —intellectuals who rejected Victorian ideals—gathered in the Village. Homosexuals were predominantly male, although figures such as poet Edna St.

Vincent Millay and social host Mabel Dodge were known for their affairs with women and promotion of tolerance of homosexuality.

The existence of a public space for women to socialize in bars that were known to cater to lesbians "became the single most important public manifestation of the subculture for many decades", according to historian Lillian Faderman.

The primary component necessary to encourage lesbians to be public and seek other women was economic independence, which virtually disappeared in the s with the Great Depression.

Most women in the U. Independent women in the s were generally seen as holding jobs that men should have. The social attitude made very small and close-knit communities in large cities that centered around bars, while simultaneously isolating women in other locales.

Speaking of homosexuality in any context was socially forbidden, and women rarely discussed lesbianism even amongst themselves; they referred to openly gay people as "in the Life".

Homosexual subculture disappeared in Germany with the rise of the Nazis in The onset of World War II caused a massive upheaval in people's lives as military mobilization engaged millions of men.

Women were also accepted into the military in the U. Unlike processes to screen out male homosexuals, which had been in place since the creation of the American military, there were no methods to identify or screen for lesbians; they were put into place gradually during World War II.

Despite common attitudes regarding women's traditional roles in the s, independent and masculine women were directly recruited by the military in the s, and frailty discouraged.

Some women were able to arrive at the recruiting station in a man's suit, deny ever having been in love with another woman, and be easily inducted.

As women found each other, they formed into tight groups on base, socialized at service clubs, and began to use code words. The most masculine women were not necessarily common, though they were visible so they tended to attract women interested in finding other lesbians.

Women had to broach the subject about their interest in other women carefully, sometimes taking days to develop a common understanding without asking or stating anything outright.

The increased mobility, sophistication, and independence of many women during and after the war made it possible for women to live without husbands, something that would not have been feasible under different economic and social circumstances, further shaping lesbian networks and environments.

Lesbians were not included under Paragraph , a German statute which made homosexual acts between males a crime. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum stipulates that this is because women were seen as subordinate to men, and that the Nazi state feared lesbians less than gay men.

However, the USHMM also claims that many women were arrested and imprisoned for "asocial" behaviour, a label which was applied to women who did not conform to the ideal Nazi image of a woman: cooking, cleaning, kitchen work, child raising, and passivity.

These women were labeled with a black triangle. Many lesbians also reclaimed the pink triangle. Following World War II, a nationwide movement pressed to return to pre-war society as quickly as possible in the U.

Homosexuals were thought to be vulnerable targets to blackmail , and the government purged its employment ranks of open homosexuals, beginning a widespread effort to gather intelligence about employees' private lives.

The U. Attitudes and practices to ferret out homosexuals in public service positions extended to Australia [] and Canada. Very little information was available about homosexuality beyond medical and psychiatric texts.

Community meeting places consisted of bars that were commonly raided by police once a month on average, with those arrested exposed in newspapers.

In response, eight women in San Francisco met in their living rooms in to socialize and have a safe place to dance.

When they decided to make it a regular meeting, they became the first organization for lesbians in the U. Inside the front cover of every issue was their mission statement, the first of which stated was "Education of the variant".

It was intended to provide women with knowledge about homosexuality—specifically relating to women and famous lesbians in history.

However, by , the term "lesbian" had such a negative meaning that the DOB refused to use it as a descriptor, choosing "variant" instead.

The DOB spread to Chicago, New York, and Los Angeles, and The Ladder was mailed to hundreds—eventually thousands—of DOB members discussing the nature of homosexuality, sometimes challenging the idea that it was a sickness, with readers offering their own reasons why they were lesbians and suggesting ways to cope with the condition or society's response to it.

As a reflection of categories of sexuality so sharply defined by the government and society at large, lesbian subculture developed extremely rigid gender roles between women, particularly among the working class in the U.

Although many municipalities had enacted laws against cross-dressing, some women would socialize in bars as butches : dressed in men's clothing and mirroring traditional masculine behavior.

Others wore traditionally feminine clothing and assumed a more diminutive role as femmes. Butch and femme modes of socialization were so integral within lesbian bars that women who refused to choose between the two would be ignored, or at least unable to date anyone, and butch women becoming romantically involved with other butch women or femmes with other femmes was unacceptable.

Butch women were not a novelty in the s; even in Harlem and Greenwich Village in the s some women assumed these personae. Many wealthier women married to satisfy their familial obligations, and others escaped to Europe to live as expatriates.

Regardless of the lack of information about homosexuality in scholarly texts, another forum for learning about lesbianism was growing.

A paperback book titled Women's Barracks describing a woman's experiences in the Free French Forces was published in It told of a lesbian relationship the author had witnessed.

After 4. Gold Medal Books was overwhelmed with mail from women writing about the subject matter, and followed with more books, creating the genre of lesbian pulp fiction.

Between and over 2, books were published using lesbianism as a topic, and they were sold in corner drugstores, train stations, bus stops, and newsstands all over the U.

Most were written by, and almost all were marketed to heterosexual men. Coded words and images were used on the covers.

Instead of "lesbian", terms such as "strange", "twilight", "queer", and "third sex", were used in the titles, and cover art was invariably salacious.

Bannon, who also purchased lesbian pulp fiction, later stated that women identified the material iconically by the cover art.

As a result, pulp fiction helped to proliferate a lesbian identity simultaneously to lesbians and heterosexual readers. The social rigidity of the s and early s encountered a backlash as social movements to improve the standing of African Americans, the poor, women, and gays all became prominent.

Of the latter two, the gay rights movement and the feminist movement connected after a violent confrontation occurred in New York City in the Stonewall riots.

The sexual revolution in the s introduced the differentiation between identity and sexual behavior for women.

Many women took advantage of their new social freedom to try new experiences. Women who previously identified as heterosexual tried sex with women, though many maintained their heterosexual identity.

A militant feminist organization named Radicalesbians published a manifesto in entitled " The Woman-Identified Woman " that declared "A lesbian is the rage of all women condensed to the point of explosion".

Militant feminists expressed their disdain with an inherently sexist and patriarchal society, and concluded the most effective way to overcome sexism and attain the equality of women would be to deny men any power or pleasure from women.

For women who subscribed to this philosophy—dubbing themselves lesbian-feminists —lesbian was a term chosen by women to describe any woman who dedicated her approach to social interaction and political motivation to the welfare of women.

Sexual desire was not the defining characteristic of a lesbian-feminist, but rather her focus on politics. Independence from men as oppressors was a central tenet of lesbian-feminism, and many believers strove to separate themselves physically and economically from traditional male-centered culture.

In the ideal society, named Lesbian Nation, "woman" and "lesbian" were interchangeable. Although lesbian-feminism was a significant shift, not all lesbians agreed with it.

Lesbian-feminism was a youth-oriented movement: its members were primarily college educated, with experience in New Left and radical causes, but they had not seen any success in persuading radical organizations to take up women's issues.

The Daughters of Bilitis folded in over which direction to focus on: feminism or gay rights issues. As equality was a priority for lesbian-feminists, disparity of roles between men and women or butch and femme were viewed as patriarchal.

Lesbian-feminists eschewed gender role play that had been pervasive in bars, as well as the perceived chauvinism of gay men; many lesbian-feminists refused to work with gay men, or take up their causes.

In , poet and essayist Adrienne Rich expanded upon the political meaning of lesbian by proposing a continuum of lesbian existence based on "woman-identified experience" in her essay " Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence ".

Such a perception of women relating to each other connects them through time and across cultures, and Rich considered heterosexuality a condition forced upon women by men.

Arabic-language historical records have used various terms to describe sexual practices between women. The common term to describe lesbianism in Arabic today is essentially the same term used to describe men, and thus the distinction between male and female homosexuality is to a certain extent linguistically obscured in contemporary queer discourse.

Female homosexual behavior may be present in every culture, although the concept of a lesbian as a woman who pairs exclusively with other women is not.

Attitudes about female homosexual behavior are dependent upon women's roles in each society and each culture's definition of sex.

Women in the Middle East have been historically segregated from men. In the 7th and 8th centuries, some extraordinary women dressed in male attire when gender roles were less strict, but the sexual roles that accompanied European women were not associated with Islamic women.

The Caliphal court in Baghdad featured women who dressed as men, including false facial hair, but they competed with other women for the attentions of men.

According to the 12th century writings of Sharif al-Idrisi , highly intelligent women were more likely to be lesbians; their intellectual prowess put them on a more even par with men.

Women, however, were mostly silent and men likewise rarely wrote about lesbian relationships. It is unclear to historians if the rare instances of lesbianism mentioned in literature are an accurate historical record or intended to serve as fantasies for men.

A treatise about repression in Iran asserted that women were completely silenced: "In the whole of Iranian history, [no woman] has been allowed to speak out for such tendencies To attest to lesbian desires would be an unforgivable crime.

Although the authors of Islamic Homosexualities argued this did not mean women could not engage in lesbian relationships, a lesbian anthropologist in visited Yemen and reported that women in the town she visited were unable to comprehend her romantic relationship to another woman.

Women in Pakistan are expected to marry men; those who do not are ostracized. Women, however, may have intimate relations with other women as long as their wifely duties are met, their private matters are kept quiet, and the woman with whom they are involved is somehow related by family or logical interest to her lover.

Individuals identifying with or otherwise engaging in lesbian practices in the region can face family violence and societal persecution, including what are commonly referred to as " honor killings.

Some Indigenous peoples of the Americas conceptualize a third gender for women who dress as, and fulfill the roles usually filled by, men in their cultures.

In Latin America , lesbian consciousness and associations appeared in the s, increasing while several countries transitioned to or reformed democratic governments.

Harassment and intimidation have been common even in places where homosexuality is legal, and laws against child corruption, morality, or "the good ways" faltas a la moral o las buenas costumbres , have been used to persecute homosexuals.

Six mostly secret organizations concentrating on gay or lesbian issues were founded around this time, but persecution and harassment were continuous and grew worse with the dictatorship of Jorge Rafael Videla in , when all groups were dissolved in the Dirty War.

Lesbian rights groups have gradually formed since to build a cohesive community that works to overcome philosophical differences with heterosexual women.

The Latin American lesbian movement has been the most active in Mexico , but has encountered similar problems in effectiveness and cohesion.

While groups try to promote lesbian issues and concerns, they also face misogynistic attitudes from gay men and homophobic views from heterosexual women.

In , Lesbos , the first lesbian organization for Mexicans, was formed. Several incarnations of political groups promoting lesbian issues have evolved; 13 lesbian organizations were active in Mexico City in Ultimately, however, lesbian associations have had little influence both on the homosexual and feminist movements.

The lesbian movement has been closely associated with the feminist movement in Chile, although the relationship has been sometimes strained.

Lesbian consciousness became more visible in Nicaragua in , when the Sandinista National Liberation Front expelled gay men and lesbians from its midst.

State persecution prevented the formation of associations until AIDS became a concern, when educational efforts forced sexual minorities to band together.

The first lesbian organization was Nosotras , founded in The meetings of feminist lesbians of Latin America and the Caribbean, sometimes shortened to "Lesbian meetings", have been an important forum for the exchange of ideas for Latin American lesbians since the late s.

With rotating hosts and biannual gatherings, its main aims are the creation of communication networks, to change the situation of lesbians in Latin America both legally and socially , to increase solidarity between lesbians and to destroy the existing myths about them.

Cross-gender roles and marriage between women has also been recorded in over 30 African societies. The Hausa people of Sudan have a term equivalent to lesbian, kifi , that may also be applied to males to mean "neither party insists on a particular sexual role".

Lesbian relationships are also known in matrilineal societies in Ghana among the Akan people. In Lesotho , females engage in what is commonly considered sexual behavior to the Western world: they kiss, sleep together, rub genitals, participate in cunnilingus , and maintain their relationships with other females vigilantly.

Since the people of Lesotho believe sex requires a penis, however, they do not consider their behavior sexual, nor label themselves lesbians.

In South Africa, lesbians are raped by heterosexual men with a goal of punishment of "abnormal" behavior and reinforcement of societal norms.

Corrective rape is reported to be on the rise in South Africa. The South African nonprofit "Luleki Sizwe" estimates that more than 10 lesbians are raped or gang-raped on a weekly basis.

China before westernization was another society that segregated men from women. Historical Chinese culture has not recognized a concept of sexual orientation, or a framework to divide people based on their same-sex or opposite-sex attractions.

Outside their duties to bear sons to their husbands, women were perceived as having no sexuality at all.

This did not mean that women could not pursue sexual relationships with other women, but that such associations could not impose upon women's relationships to men.

Rare references to lesbianism were written by Ying Shao , who identified same-sex relationships between women in imperial courts who behaved as husband and wife as dui shi paired eating.

The liberty of being employed in silk factories starting in allowed some women to style themselves tzu-shu nii never to marry and live in communes with other women.

Other Chinese called them sou-hei self-combers for adopting hairstyles of married women. These communes passed because of the Great Depression and were subsequently discouraged by the communist government for being a relic of feudal China.

In Japan, the term rezubian , a Japanese pronunciation of "lesbian", was used during the s. Westernization brought more independence for women and allowed some Japanese women to wear pants.

In India, a 14th-century Indian text mentioning a lesbian couple who had a child as a result of their lovemaking is an exception to the general silence about female homosexuality.

According to Ruth Vanita , this invisibility disappeared with the release of a film titled Fire in , prompting some theaters in India to be attacked by religious extremists.

Terms used to label homosexuals are often rejected by Indian activists for being the result of imperialist influence, but most discourse on homosexuality centers on men.

Women's rights groups in India continue to debate the legitimacy of including lesbian issues in their platforms, as lesbians and material focusing on female homosexuality are frequently suppressed.

The most extensive early study of female homosexuality was provided by the Institute for Sex Research , who published an in-depth report of the sexual experiences of American women in More than 8, women were interviewed by Alfred Kinsey and the staff of the Institute for Sex Research in a book titled Sexual Behavior in the Human Female , popularly known as part of the Kinsey Report.

The Kinsey Report's dispassionate discussion of homosexuality as a form of human sexual behavior was revolutionary. Up to this study, only physicians and psychiatrists studied sexual behavior, and almost always the results were interpreted with a moral view.

Single women had the highest prevalence of homosexual activity, followed by women who were widowed, divorced, or separated.

The lowest occurrence of sexual activity was among married women; those with previous homosexual experience reported they married to stop homosexual activity.

Most of the women who reported homosexual activity had not experienced it more than ten times. Fifty-one percent of women reporting homosexual experience had only one partner.

Twenty-three years later, in , sexologist Shere Hite published a report on the sexual encounters of 3, women who had responded to questionnaires, under the title The Hite Report.

Hite's questions differed from Kinsey's, focusing more on how women identified, or what they preferred rather than experience. Hite's conclusions are more based on respondents' comments than quantifiable data.

She found it "striking" that many women who had no lesbian experiences indicated they were interested in sex with women, particularly because the question was not asked.

Lesbians in the U. The study attributed the jump to people being more comfortable self-identifying as homosexual to the federal government.

The government of the United Kingdom does not ask citizens to define their sexuality. However, polls in Australia have recorded a range of self-identified lesbian or bisexual women from 1.

In terms of medical issues, lesbians are referred to as women who have sex with women WSW because of the misconceptions and assumptions about women's sexuality and some women's hesitancy to disclose their accurate sexual histories even to a physician.

The result of the lack of medical information on WSW is that medical professionals and some lesbians perceive lesbians as having lower risks of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases or types of cancer.

When women do seek medical attention, medical professionals often fail to take a complete medical history. In a study of 2, lesbian and bisexual women, only 9.

Heart disease is listed by the U. Department of Health and Human Services as the number one cause of death for all women. Factors that add to risk of heart disease include obesity and smoking , both of which are more prevalent in lesbians.

Studies show that lesbians have a higher body mass and are generally less concerned about weight issues than heterosexual women, and lesbians consider women with higher body masses to be more attractive than heterosexual women do.

Lesbians are more likely to exercise regularly than heterosexual women, and lesbians do not generally exercise for aesthetic reasons, although heterosexual women do.

Lack of differentiation between homosexual and heterosexual women in medical studies that concentrate on health issues for women skews results for lesbians and non-lesbian women.

Reports are inconclusive about occurrence of breast cancer in lesbians. The risk factors for developing ovarian cancer rates are higher in lesbians than heterosexual women, perhaps because many lesbians lack protective factors of pregnancy, abortion, contraceptives, breast feeding, and miscarriages.

Some sexually transmitted diseases are communicable between women, including human papillomavirus HPV —specifically genital warts — squamous intraepithelial lesions , trichomoniasis , syphilis , and herpes simplex virus HSV.

Transmission of specific sexually transmitted diseases among women who have sex with women depends on the sexual practices women engage in. Any object that comes in contact with cervical secretions, vaginal mucosa, or menstrual blood, including fingers or penetrative objects may transmit sexually transmitted diseases.

Bacterial vaginosis BV occurs more often in lesbians, but it is unclear if BV is transmitted by sexual contact; it occurs in celibate as well as sexually active women.

The highest rate of transmission of HIV to lesbians is among women who participate in intravenous drug use or have sexual intercourse with bisexual men.

Since medical literature began to describe homosexuality, it has often been approached from a view that sought to find an inherent psychopathology as the root cause, influenced by the theories of Sigmund Freud.

Although he considered bisexuality inherent in all people, and said that most have phases of homosexual attraction or experimentation, exclusive same-sex attraction he attributed to stunted development resulting from trauma or parental conflicts.

Although these issues exist among lesbians, discussion about their causes shifted after homosexuality was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in Instead, social ostracism, legal discrimination, internalization of negative stereotypes, and limited support structures indicate factors homosexuals face in Western societies that often adversely affect their mental health.

Women who identify as lesbian report feeling significantly different and isolated during adolescence. Women also limit who they divulge their sexual identities to, and more often see being lesbian as a choice, as opposed to gay men, who work more externally and see being gay as outside their control.

Anxiety disorders and depression are the most common mental health issues for women. Depression is reported among lesbians at a rate similar to heterosexual women, [] although generalized anxiety disorder is more likely to appear among lesbian and bisexual women than heterosexual women.

Studies have shown that heterosexual men and lesbians have different standards for what they consider attractive in women. Lesbians who view themselves with male standards of female beauty may experience lower self-esteem, eating disorders , and higher incidence of depression.

A population-based study completed by the National Alcohol Research Center found that women who identify as lesbian or bisexual are less likely to abstain from alcohol.

Lesbians and bisexual women have a higher likelihood of reporting problems with alcohol, as well as not being satisfied with treatment for substance abuse programs.

Lesbians portrayed in literature, film, and television often shape contemporary thought about women's sexuality. The majority of media about lesbians is produced by men; [] women's publishing companies did not develop until the s, films about lesbians made by women did not appear until the s, and television shows portraying lesbians written by women only began to be created in the 21st century.

As a result, homosexuality—particularly dealing with women—has been excluded because of symbolic annihilation. When depictions of lesbians began to surface, they were often one-dimensional, simplified stereotypes.

In addition to Sappho's accomplishments, [o] literary historian Jeannette Howard Foster includes the Book of Ruth , [] and ancient mythological tradition as examples of lesbianism in classical literature.

Greek stories of the heavens often included a female figure whose virtue and virginity were unspoiled, who pursued more masculine interests, and who was followed by a dedicated group of maidens.

Foster cites Camilla and Diana , Artemis and Callisto , and Iphis and Ianthe as examples of female mythological figures who showed remarkable devotion to each other, or defied gender expectations.

En-hedu-ana , a priestess in Ancient Iraq who dedicated herself to the Sumerian goddess Inanna , has the distinction of signing the oldest-surviving signed poetry in history.

She characterized herself as Inanna's spouse. For ten centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire, lesbianism disappeared from literature.

Physical relationships between women were often encouraged; men felt no threat as they viewed sexual acts between women to be accepted when men were not available, and not comparable to fulfillment that could be achieved by sexual acts between men and women.

Physical and therefore emotional satisfaction was considered impossible without a natural phallus. Male intervention into relationships between women was necessary only when women acted as men and demanded the same social privileges.

Lesbianism became almost exclusive to French literature in the 19th century, based on male fantasy and the desire to shock bourgeois moral values.

Reflecting French society, as well as employing stock character associations, many of the lesbian characters in 19th-century French literature were prostitutes or courtesans: personifications of vice who died early, violent deaths in moral endings.

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